# Techniques for efficient post-quantum finance (Part 3: adaptor signatures)

technical research proof-of-stake

5th May 2022

## Table of Contents

This is the third article in a multipart series from The QRL Foundation and Geometry Labs exploring various methods for constructing scalable post-quantum cryptographic primitives and protocols. In the first article, we describe a lattice-based one-time signature scheme similar to the one published by Lyubashevsky and Micciancio, with some optimizations for key and signature sizes. In the second article, we show how to extend this to Boneh and Kim style signature aggregation, which has several potential applications such as reducing the on-chain footprint for proof-of-stake consensus with many validators, implementing m-of-n multisignature wallets, and on-chain governance. **This article describes our novel one-time adaptor signature scheme, designed to enable payment channels and decentralized trustless cross-chain atomic swaps (inspired by the work of Esgin, Ersoy, and Erkin).**

**The articles in this series describe the applications and security models; additionally, open-source python implementations of the cryptography are freely available** via GitHub and PyPI (`pip install lattice-cryptography`

), built with the lattice-algebra library described in a previous QRL blog post.

Note:While some effort has gone into making everything understandable, the intended audience for this article series is systems integrators and students in cryptography. In order to help aid in understanding, we’ve added a further reading and materials section and will have an open AMA form for the duration of this “Techniques for post-quantum finance” series to ask any questions that may arise, both technical and non-technical. These writeups are intended to be informational, and the schemes described for illustration are not formal secure specifications.

## Cross-Chain and Off-Chain Transacting

Adaptor signatures have applications both for scaling individual ledgers (payment channels) and enabling communication between them (cross-chain swaps).

**Payment channels** enable off-chain transactions, like Bitcoin’s “lightning network”. One way to think about blockchains is that they provide slow and expensive base layers upon which lighter architecture can be built. Storage and verification are costs paid collectively (every node verifies every transaction and block and signature), so there is a high priority placed upon minimizing the total number of interactions with this expensive base layer. One way users can lighten storage requirements for nodes is to allow users to safely transact via *payment channels*, only settling to the base layer occasionally.

**Cross-chain atomic swaps** allow users to trustlessly transact between protocol base layers. We think this interface is compatible with external protocols based on elliptic curve cryptography, meaning it would be possible to execute direct swaps for QRL↔BTC, QRL↔ETH, QRL↔ZEC, etc.

As it turns out, we can accomplish both of these styles of collateralized swap using so-called *adaptor signatures*, which have also been known as *verifiably encrypted signatures*.

## Introduction to Adaptor Signatures

Adaptor signatures, as described by Esgin, Ersoy, and Erkin in [1], were first proposed for use in MimbleWimble by the (presumably) pseudonymous Tom Elvis Jedusor in the white paper [2], and were fleshed out in the presentations [3] “Scriptless Scripts” by Andrew Poelstra (2017, https://download.wpsoftware.net/bitcoin/wizardry/mw-slides/2017-03-mit-bitcoin-expo/slides.pdf). However, the ideas used in adaptor signatures have an earlier basis, as they have some similarities to the verifiably encrypted signatures from the peer-reviewed [4] (see the white paper [5] for some details). More recently, formalizations have been proposed in the peer-reviewed [1, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Our scheme is not quite in accordance with those definitions, but it is in the same family of protocols.

Crytographic schemes for adaptor signatures have all the functionality of usual digital signature schemes, and an additional feature: an adaptor signature scheme produces not just signatures, but also authenticated commitments called *pre-signatures*. These pre-signatures commit to secret witnesses, can be verified to have been computed by a signing key, and can be adapted into valid signatures given the secret witness. However, when pre- signatures are adapted, the commitment is opened, revealing the secret witness. In fact, we require as a subscheme a *hard relation*. Recall that a relation on a pair of sets $S, T$ is a subset of $S \times T$.

- $Setup^*(\lambda) \to \rho$ is a setup algorithm that specifies a witness set $K_W$ and a statement set $K_T$.
- $RelationGen \to (\underline{w}, s) \in K_W \times K_T$ generates a new witness-statement pair.
- $RelationVerify(\underline{w}, s) \to b \in \left\{0, 1\right\}^*$ inputs a witness-statement pair and outputs a bit indicating whether the witness is valid for the statement.

We say this relation is a hard relation when finding a witness $\underline{w}$ given some $s$ is difficult. We may have a nested pair of hard relations, say $K_W \subseteq K_W^\prime$ and $K_T \subseteq K_T^\prime$, such that a pair from the “inner” relation is also a pair from the outer relation. We decorate data with the apostrophe to indicate that the data come from the relaxed relation.

- $Setup^*(\lambda) \to \rho$ is a setup algorithm that specifies witness sets $K_W \subseteq K_W^\prime$ and statement sets $K_T \subseteq K_T^\prime$ and a Ring-SIS challenge $\underline{a}$.
- $RelationGen \to (\underline{w}, s) \in K_W \times K_T$ generates a new witness-statement pair.
- $RelationGen^\prime \to (\underline{w}^\prime, s^\prime) \in K_W^\prime \times K_T^\prime$ generates a new relaxed witness-statement pair.
- $RelationVerify(\underline{w}, s) \to b \in \left\{0, 1\right\}^*$ inputs a witness-statement pair and outputs a bit indicating whether the pair $(\underline{w}, s) \in K_W \times K_T$ is in the relation.
- $RelationVerify^\prime(\underline{w}, s) \to b \in \left\{0, 1\right\}^*$ inputs a witness-statement pair and outputs a bit indicating whether the pair $(\underline{w}^\prime, s^\prime) \in K_W^\prime \times K_T^\prime$ is in the relaxed relation.

The classic adaptor signature use case goes like this. Bob wants a signature $\xi$ corresponding to Alice’s key $vk$ on a message $m$ of his choice posted on a public bulletin board, and Alice wants Bob to give her a secret witness $\underline{w}$ in exchange for a signature. The secret witness $\underline{w}$ is similar to a private key, and it has a corresponding public statement $s = \langle \underline{a}, \underline{w} \rangle$, where $\underline{a}$ is a public Ring Short integer Solution challenge element, specified in the output of the $\text{Setup}$ algorithms above and $\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle$ is the dot product. To accomplish the swap, Bob uses a secure side-channel to send Alice $m$, $s$, and a proof of knowledge of a witness $\underline{w}$ corresponding to $s$. In response, she uses a secure side-channel to send a *pre-signature* from Alice, say $\hat{\xi}$. This $\hat{\xi}$ is a commitment from Alice to $s$ with properties similar to a signature. Indeed, $\hat{\xi}$ can be “pre-verified” against the message $m$, the public statement $s$, and Alice’s key $vk$.

Next, Bob *adapts* the pre-signature to a signature $\xi$ using his secret $\underline{w}$, and Bob can post $\xi$ to the public bulletin board whenever he chooses.

There are some practical considerations for security. If anyone other than Alice and Bob learn of this $\hat{\xi}$ during an intermediate step, then it is possible that Alice could be “scooped” as explained below. Additionally, if Bob posts $\xi$ to the public bulletin board, Alice can download $\xi$ and use it together with the secret $\hat{\xi}$ to extract the secret witness $\underline{w}$.

One key point here is that two pieces of secret information are required to compute a signature: both the signing key $sk$ and the secret witness $\underline{w}$. Furthermore, these two pieces of information are owned by two different parties who do not necessarily trust each other.

With this use-case in mind, we present an informal definition of an adaptor signature scheme, which uses an underlying hard relation as a sub-scheme. An adaptor signature scheme is a tuple of algorithms $(\texttt{Setup}, \texttt{Keygen}, \texttt{PreSign}, \texttt{PreVerify}, \texttt{Adapt}, \texttt{Sign}, \texttt{Verify}, \texttt{Extract})$ which informally work as follows.

- The setup algorithm $\texttt{Setup}$ includes a hard relation $(\texttt{Setup}^*, \texttt{RelationGen}, \texttt{RelationVerify})$ and an unforgeable signature scheme $(\texttt{Setup}^\prime, \texttt{Keygen}, \texttt{Sign}, \texttt{Verify})$ in its output, as well as a description of a presignature set $\widehat{\Xi}$.
- $\texttt{PreSign}((sk, vk), s, m) \to \hat{\xi} \in \widehat{\Xi}$. Input a keypair $(sk, vk) \in K_S \times K_V$, a public statement $s \in K_T$, and a message $m \in M$, and outputs a pre-signature, $\hat{\xi} \in \widehat{\Xi}$.
- $\texttt{PreVerify}(vk, s, m, \hat{\xi}) \to b \in \left\{0, 1\right\}$. Input keypair $(sk, vk)$, a public statement $s$, a message $m$, and a pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$, and outputs a bit indicating the validity of the pre-signature.
- $\texttt{Adapt}(\hat{\xi}, \underline{w}) \to \xi \in \Xi$ inputs a pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$ and a secret witness $\underline{w}$ and outputs a signature $\xi \in \Xi$.
- $\texttt{Extract}(\xi, \hat{\xi}) \to \underline{w} \in K_W$. Input a pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$, and a signature $\xi$, and outputs a secret witness $\underline{w}$. (Alternatively, $\texttt{Extract}$ may produce a relaxed witness $\underline{w}^\prime \in K_W^\prime$).

## Use Case #1: Cross-Chain Atomic Swaps

Alice and Bob can compute cross-chain atomic swaps using the following approach.

- Alice selects a secret witness $\underline{w}$ with corresponding public statement $s$, and sends $s$ to Bob together with a proof of knowledge that she knows a secret witness for $s$; if Bob is unconvinced, he proceeds no further.
- Alice posts a time-locked transaction $T_A$ on the first chain with a long time-lock that is claimable by Bob if he reveals $\underline{w}$.
- After Bob sees Alice’s transaction posted on-chain, Bob posts a transaction $T_B$ on the second chain with a shorter time-lock that is claimable by Alice if she reveals $\underline{w}$.
- Alice computes a pre-signature $\hat{\xi}_A$ signing $T_A$ and Bob computes a pre-signature $\hat{\xi}_B$ signing $T_B$ and send them to each other via secure side channel.
- Alice adapts $\hat{\xi}_B$ with $\underline{w}$ to obtain a signature $\xi_B$. Alice can post this on the second blockchain to obtain her funds.
- After seeing $\xi_B$ posted on the second blockchain, Bob can download $\xi_B$ and use $\hat{\xi}_B$ to compute $\underline{w} = \texttt{Extract}(\xi_B, \hat{\xi}_B)$. Now, Bob can adapt $\hat{\xi}_A$ with $\underline{w}$ to obtain $\xi_A$, which he can post on the first blockchain to claim his funds.

Note that since the time-lock on Bob’s transaction is short, Alice has time to claim her funds before the time-lock elapses. Considering various outcomes, and the fact that Alice or Bob can unilaterally opt out of completing the exchange, we see that either both parties get what they want, or neither party does. By building refund functionality into the transaction protocol, the users can also guarantee they get their funds back if something goes wrong.

For example, $\underline{w}$ may be a secret witness that plays a dual role, where it is both a bitwise description of a small-norm vector in a Module-SIS setting, and also a pre-image for a hash in a pay-to-hash-pre-image cryptocurrency.

## Use Case #2: Payment Channel Networks

We can employ the anonymous multi-hop lock (AMHL) approach to developing a payment channel network with lattice-based approaches.

- A user selects random secret witnesses $\underline{w}_0, \underline{w}_1, \underline{w}_2, …$ for each intermediary node through which their payment channel will route.
- The user computes the sequence of partial sums $\sigma_0 = \underline{w}_0, \sigma_1 = \sigma_0 + \underline{w}_1, \sigma_2 = \sigma_1 + \underline{w}_2, …$ and computes their dot product against the key challenge, $P_0 = \langle \underline{a}, \sigma_0 \rangle, P_1 = \langle \underline{a}, \sigma_1 \rangle, \ldots$
- The user sends $(P_0, P_1, \underline{w}_1)$ to the first intermediary node, $(P_1, P_2, \underline{w}_2)$ to the second intermediary node, $(P_2, P_3, \underline{w}_3)$ to the third intermediary node, and so on.
- The user sends $P_N$ to the final recipient.
- Each intermediary verifies that $a * \underline{w}_i + P_{i-1} = a * \sigma_i = P_i$.
- To make a payment to the final recipient, the user makes a conditional payment to the first intermediary node, who then makes a conditional payment to the second intermediary node, and so on. Once all these are placed, the user reveals $\underline{w}_N$ to the final recipient. The final recipient adapts a pre-signature to a signature and posts it. This allows the last intermediary node to extract a secret witness, from which they can adapt their pre-signature to a signature and post on the blockchain. This proceeds backward iteratively until all conditional payments are completed.

Just like a positive cloud-to-ground lightning strike actually sees electrons moving from the ground to the sky, the revelation of secret witnesses proceeds backward from the final recipient to the sending user like a lightning strike.

## Security Models

As mentioned in previous articles, cryptographic schemes are only secure if their parameters are chosen properly. In both of the protocols we have described here, users require that pre-signatures can be adapted to valid signatures, and users require that signature-pre-signature pairs are enough to extract witnesses. And, of course, we require that signatures are unforgeable. Of course, if signatures are unforgeable and they are easy to adapt from pre-signatures, then unforgeability of signatures will also imply unforgeability of pre-signatures. This is why protocols with adaptor signatures can (sometimes) be thought of as having built-in authentication by default. Thus, in addition to unforgeability and correctness, we have the notions of *pre-signature adaptability* and *(weak) witness extractability*.

### Correctness

Correctness merely says that the sub-schemes (the hard relation and the signature scheme) are both correct and if honest parties use the adaptor signature scheme as expected, everything works out. In particular:

- A pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$ computed from $\texttt{PreSign}$ with an honest keypair $(sk, vk) \leftarrow \texttt{Keygen}$ and a statement $s$ on message $m$ passes pre-verification: $\texttt{PreVerify}((sk, vk), s, m, \texttt{PreSign}((sk, vk), s, m)) = 1$.
- Adapting an honestly computed pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$ with an honest witness-statement pair $(w, s)$ results in a valid signature $\xi$: $\texttt{Verify}(vk, s, m, Adapt(\hat{\xi}, \underline{w})) = 1$.
- Extracting a witness from this pre-signature and adapted pre-signature results in a valid (although possibly relaxed) witness: $\texttt{RelationVerify}(\texttt{Extract}(\hat{\xi}, \xi), s) = 1$.

Like in our previous articles, we learn about a security property P by *negating* P and interpreting what *that* means. In this spirit, if the scheme is not correct, then at least one of these three properties fail. If the first property fails, then an honestly computed pre-signature on an honestly-sampled key with an honestly sampled statement from the hard relation may fail pre-verification by an honest verifier. If the second property fails, then an honest adaption of an honestly computed pre-signature with an honestly sampled witness from the hard relation may fail verification by an honest verifier. If the third property fails then honestly extracting a witness from an honestly computed signature-pre-signature pair may fail to produce a valid witness.

So, if a scheme is correct, then honest users can rest assured that their pre-signatures will pass honest pre-verification, and they can be honestly adapted to signatures that pass honest verification, and that valid witnesses can be extracted from such honest signature-pre-signature pairs. The remainder of the security properties ensure that we can relax these notions to not-necessarily-honest constructions.

We note that since this property does not require any oracle access, or multiple keys or signatures, then it applies to the one-time signature environment as well (with one-time keys and one-time witnesses).

### Pre-Signature Adaptability

We want to ensure that it is not possible for an adversary to find a valid-looking pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$ and statement $s$ such that the adaptation with a valid witness $\underline{w}$ for $s$ $\xi \leftarrow \texttt{Adapt}(\hat{\xi}, \underline{w})$ fails signature verification. This prevents an adversary from convincing a victim who knows a valid witness $\underline{w}$ for $s$ to accept a valid-looking $\hat{\xi}$ from which the victim cannot produce a valid signature. Pre-signature adaptability is the property that, for a statement $s$ and a valid pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$ on $s$, users with a valid witness $\underline{w}$ for $s$ can adapt $\hat{\xi}$ to obtain a valid signature $\xi$, even if $\hat{\xi}$ was not honestly computed. We call this property pre-signature adaptability.

In symbols, if $vk$ is any verification key, $s$ is any statement, $\underline{w}$ is any witness, $m$ is any message, $\hat{\xi}$ is any pre-signature, $A$ is the event that $\texttt{PreVerify}(vk, s, m, \hat{\xi}) = 1$, $B$ is the event that $\texttt{RelationVerify}(\underline{w}, s) = 1$, and $C$ is the event that $\texttt{Verify}(vk, s, m, \texttt{Adapt}(\hat{\xi}, \underline{w})) = 1$, we want the probability $\mathbb{P}\left[C \mid A \cap B\right] = 1$ (or at least negligibly close to 1).

We note that since this property does not require any oracle access, or ltiple keys or signatures, then it applies just fine to the one-time signature environment (just so long as we make sure to emphasize that all keys and witnesses are one-time).

### (Weak) Witness Extractability

We want to ensure that it is not possible for an adversary to publish a valid pre-signature $\hat{\xi}$ and a valid signature $\xi$ on the same data (including the same statement $s$) without giving away a valid (although perhaps relaxed) witness $\underline{w}^\prime$ to $s$. Witness extractability (or weak witness extractability, respectively) is the property that, for a statement $s$ and a valid signature-pre-signature pair $(\xi$ and $\hat{\xi})$ on $s$, the (weak) witness extracted with $\underline{w}^\prime \leftarrow \texttt{Extract}(\hat{\xi}, \xi)$ is valid, even if the signatures were not computed honestly.

Written symbolically, if $vk$ is any verification key, $m$ is any message, $s$ is any statement, $\hat{\xi}$ is any pre-signature, $\xi$ is any signature, $A$ is the event that $\texttt{PreVerify}(vk, s, m, \hat{\xi}) = 1$, $B$ is the event that $\texttt{Verify}(vk, m, \xi) = 1$, $C$ is the event that $\underline{w} \leftarrow \texttt{Extract}(\xi, \hat{\xi})$, $D$ is the event that $\texttt{RelationVerify}(\underline{w}, s) = 1$, and $D^\prime$ is the event that $\texttt{RelationVerify}^\prime(\underline{w}, s) = 1$, then witness extractability is when $\mathbb{P}\left[D \mid A \cap B \cap C\right] = 1$ (or is negligibly close to 1) and weak witness extractability is when $\mathbb{P}\left[D^\prime \mid A \cap B \cap C\right] = 1$ (or is negligibly close to 1).

In the schemes we discuss here, we actually do not attain the property of witness extractability, we only have *weak witness extractability*, where a *relaxed* witness can be extracted. In the above model of the lightning network, using weak witness extractability in a lattice setting, extracted witnesses grow in size until they are too large to be useful as secret witnesses. This places a natural maximum length on the chain of intermediary payment nodes.

We note that since this property does not require any oracle access, or multiple keys or signatures, then it applies to the one-time signature environment as well (with one-time keys and one-time witnesses).

### Unforgeability

It is necessary that the underlying signature scheme is unforgeable in order for the adaptor scheme to be unforgeable. Indeed, if the underlying signature scheme is unforgeable, then even an algorithm with access to $\texttt{PreSign}$ and $\texttt{Adapt}$ won’t be able to construct a valid signature on a challenge key. However, this alone is not sufficient; in unforgeability definitions, we grant the adversary the benefit of the doubt by allowing this adversary to persuade honest users to publish signatures on messages chosen by the attacker. This is modeled by giving the adversary signature oracle access.

In the adaptor signature scheme, the adversary should also be granted pre-signature oracle access so that the model of unforgeability grants the adversary a similar benefit. We grant the adversary even further benefits, by giving the adversary one free pre-signature oracle query. This models the situation that the adversary is only concerned with forgeries that appears to be an adaptation of a specific oracle-generated pre-signature. In this case, the forger is granted one free pre-signing oracle query, is otherwise granted unlimited and adaptive access to both the signing and the pre-signing oracle, and is asked to produce any signature on any challenge key on any message that was not queried to either the signing or the pre-signing oracles.

In the one-time signature case, oracle access is limited to one-time access. In the adaptor signature case, we think this means that both oracles should only be queryable once, including the free pre-signature oracle query granted to the adversary.

## Implementation

We note that we can rather easily adapt the previously described one-time lattice-based signature scheme to construct a protocol that is *nearly* a one-time adaptor signature scheme. The scheme consists of a tuple of the following algorithms.

- The $\texttt{Setup}$ algorithm includes the output from the setup algorithm from our first article on one-time signature schemes, but with some additional data (in particular, the pair of nested hard relations).
- $\texttt{Sign}((sk, vk), (\underline{w}, s), m) \to \xi \in \Xi$ modifies the LMSigs signature algorithm by prepending $s$ to $m$ before computing the signature challenge, and summing the witness $\underline{w}$ with the result. That is to say, the signature is now $\xi = \underline{x} \cdot c + \underline{y} + \underline{w}$ where we compute $c = F(vk, s, m)$ instead of $c = F(vk, m)$.
- $\texttt{Verify}(vk, s, m, \xi) \to \left\{0, 1\right\}$ modifies the LMSigs verification algorithm by merely prepending $s$ to $m$ before verifying, and by modifying the verification equation to account for how $\texttt{Sign}$ works. That is to say, we check the bounds on $\xi$ and check if $\langle \underline{a}, \xi \rangle = X c + Y + s$, where $c = F(vk, s, m)$.
- $\texttt{PreSign}((sk, vk), s, m) \to \hat{\xi} \in \widehat{\Xi}$ computes the signature challenge $c$ as in $\texttt{Sign}$ and ouptuts $\hat{\xi} = \underline{x} c + \underline{y}$. $\texttt{PreVerify}(vk, s, m, \hat{\xi}) \to \left\{0, 1\right\}$ checks the bound on $\hat{\xi}$ and checks that $\langle \underline{a}, \hat{\xi}\rangle = Xc + Y$ where $c$ is computed as in $\texttt{Sign}$ and $\texttt{PreSign}$.
- $\texttt{Adapt}(\hat{\xi}, \underline{w}) \to \xi = \hat{\xi} + \underline{w}$ outputs the sum.
- $\texttt{Extract}(\hat{\xi}, \xi) \to \underline{w}^\prime = \xi - \hat{\xi}$ outputs the difference.

This illustration is formally not an adaptor signature scheme; although it employs algorithms that *wrap* the LMSigs signature scheme, it does not use those algorithms directly as a proper sub-scheme. Users have access to all the same algorithms as in an adaptor signature scheme, and it seems likely that the different security properties of adaptor signature schemes still carry through (with certain technical modifications to the definitions).

## Conclusion

In this article we explain how our novel adaptor signature scheme can be used to build payment channels (akin to Bitcoin’s “lightning network”) and trustless cross-chain atomic swaps enabling direct trades and decentralized on-ramps such as QRL↔BTC, QRL↔ETH, QRL↔ZEC, etc. We discuss relevant security models and properties such as correctness, witness extractability, and unforgeability.

## Writeup Contributors

Brandon Goodell, Mitchell “Isthmus” Krawiec-Thayer, Carlos Cid

Correspondence: info@geometrylabs.io

## References

[1] Muhammed F. Esgin, Oğuzhan Ersoy, and Zekeriya Erkin. “Post-quantum adaptor signatures and payment channel networks.” European Symposium on Research in Computer Security. Springer, Cham, 2020.

[2] “MimbleWimble.” Tom Elvis Jedusor. 2016. https://docs.beam.mw/Mimblewimble.pdf

[3] “Scriptless Scripts.” Andrew Poelstra. 2017. https://download.wpsoftware.net/bitcoin/wizardry/mw-slides/2017-03-mit-bitcoin-expo/slides.pdf

[4] D. Boneh, C. Gentry, B. Lynn, & H. Shacham (2003, May). “Aggregate and verifiably encrypted signatures from bilinear maps.” In International conference on the theory and applications of cryptographic techniques (pp. 416-432). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

[5] L. Fournier: One-time verifiably encrypted signatures a.k.a. adaptor signatures (Oct 2019), https://github.com/LLFourn/one-time-VES/blob/master/main.pdf

[6] Erkan Tairi, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez, and Matteo Maffei. “Post-quantum adaptor signature for privacy-preserving off-chain payments.” International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2021.

[7] A. Erwig, et al. “Two-party adaptor signatures from identification schemes.” IACR International Conference on Public-Key Cryptography. Springer, Cham, 2021.

[8] L. Aumayr, et al. “Generalized channels from limited blockchain scripts and adaptor signatures.” International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security. Springer, Cham, 2021.

[9] Jean Belo Klamti, and M. Anwar Hasan. “Post-Quantum Two-Party Adaptor Signature Based on Coding Theory.” Cryptography 6.1 (2022): 6.

This article is part of the **Techniques for efficient post quantum finance** series.

- Introducing lattice-algebra: An elegant, high-performance post-quantum cryptography library
- Techniques for efficient post-quantum finance (Part 1: digital signatures)
- Techniques for efficient post-quantum finance (Part 2: signature aggregation)
- Selected: Techniques for efficient post-quantum finance (Part 3: adaptor signatures)
- Techniques for efficient post-quantum finance (Part 4: reducing storage requirements)

Proof of Stake technical research

5th May 2022